Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg was being treated for a possible infection and was expected to stay in the hospital for a few days following a medical procedure, the Supreme Court said in a statement.
The court said that the 87-year-old Ms Ginsburg went to a hospital in Washington on Monday evening after experiencing fever and chills.
She then underwent a procedure at Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore on Tuesday afternoon to clean out a bile duct stent that was placed last August when she was treated for a cancerous tumour on her pancreas.
The statement said the justice “is resting comfortably and will stay in the hospital for a few days to receive intravenous antibiotic treatment”.
Ms Ginsburg spent a night in the hospital in May with an infection caused by a gallstone.
While in the hospital, she participated in arguments the court heard by telephone because of the coronavirus pandemic.
Ms Ginsburg has been treated four times for cancer.
In addition to the tumour on her pancreas last year, she was previously treated for colorectal cancer in 1999 and pancreatic cancer in 2009.
She had lung surgery to remove cancerous growths in December 2018.